Verse of the Day

“And whatever you do, whether in word or deed, do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.” — Colossians 3:17 Listen to chapter . Powered by BibleGateway.com.

历史日志

2020年十一月
« 10月    
 1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30  

Elon Musk is one step closer to connecting a computer to your brain – 伊隆·马斯克 离将计算机连接到大脑仅一步之遥

Neuralink has demonstrated a prototype of its brain-machine interface that currently works in pigs.

Neuralink展示了目前可在猪中使用的脑机界面原型。

By 

Elon Musk standing with arms crossed in front of a SpaceX capsule.

Elon Musk, pictured at a SpaceX event in 2019, counts the neuroscience startup Neuralink as one of his many future-forward endeavors. Yichuan Cao/NurPhoto/Getty Images

埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)在2019年的SpaceX活动上合照,认为神经科学初创公司Neuralink是他许多未来工作中的一项。 曹宜川/ NurPhoto /盖蒂图片社

At a Friday event, Elon Musk revealed more details about his mysterious neuroscience company Neuralink and its plans to connect computers to human brains. While the development of this futuristic-sounding tech is still in its early stages, the presentation was expected to demonstrate the second version of a small, robotic device that inserts tiny electrode threads through the skull and into the brain. Musk said ahead of the event he would “show neurons firing in real-time. The matrix in the matrix.”

在周五的一次活动中,埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)透露了有关他神秘的神经科学公司Neuralink及其将计算机连接到人脑的计划的更多细节。 虽然这项具有未来感的技术的发展仍处于早期阶段,但预计该演示会演示小型机器人设备的第二版,该设备将微小的电极线穿过头骨并插入大脑。 马斯克在事件发生前表示,他将“显示神经元实时放电。 矩阵中的矩阵。”

And he did just that. At the event, Musk showed off several pigs that had prototypes of the neural links implanted in their head, and machinery that was tracking those pigs’ brain activity in real time. The billionaire also announced the Food and Drug Administration had awarded the company a breakthrough device authorization, which can help expedite research on a medical device.

他就是这样做的。 在活动中,马斯克炫耀了几只头上植入了神经链接原型的猪,并实时跟踪了这些猪的大脑活动。 这位亿万富翁还宣布,美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)授予该公司一项突破性的设备授权,这可以帮助加快对医疗设备的研究。

Like building underground car tunnels and sending private rockets to Mars, this Musk-backed endeavor is incredibly ambitious, but Neuralink builds on years of research into brain-machine interfaces. A brain-machine interface is technology that allows for a device, like a computer, to interact and communicate with a brain. Neuralink, in particular, aims to build an incredibly powerful brain-machine interface, a device with the power to handle lots of data, that can be inserted in a relatively simple surgery. Its short-term goal is to build a device that can help people with specific health conditions.

就像建造地下汽车隧道并向火星发送私人火箭一样,这项由马斯克支持的努力令人难以置信,但Neuralink建立在对人机界面的多年研究基础上。 脑机接口是一种技术,允许诸如计算机的设备与大脑进行交互和通信。 特别是Neuralink,其目标是建立一个功能强大的脑机接口,该设备具有处理大量数据的能力,可以在相对简单的手术中插入。 它的短期目标是制造一种可以帮助患有特定健康状况的人的设备。

The actual status of Neuralink’s research has been somewhat murky, and Friday’s big announcement happened as ex-employees complain of internal chaos at the company. Musk has already said the project allowed a monkey to control a computer device with its mind, and as the New York Times reported in 2019, Neuralink had demonstrated a system with 1,500 electrodes connected to a lab rat. Since then, Musk has hinted at the company’s progress (at times on Twitter), though those involved have generally been close-lipped about the status of the research.

Neuralink研究的实际状况有些模糊,上周五的重大公告发生在公司前雇员对公司内部混乱的抱怨中。 马斯克已经表示,该项目允许猴子用脑海来控制计算机设备。正如《纽约时报》 2019年报道的那样,Neuralink展示了一个将1500个电极连接到实验老鼠的系统。 从那以后,马斯克一直暗示着公司的进展(有时在Twitter上),尽管有关人员通常对研究的状况不屑一顾。

Musk opened Friday’s event by emphasizing the wide variety of spinal and neurological conditions — including seizures, paralysis, brain damage, and depression — that Neuralink technology could help treat.

“These can all be solved with an implantable neural link,” said Musk. “The neurons are like wiring, and you kind of need an electronic thing to solve an electronic problem.”

马斯克强调了脊柱和神经系统疾病(包括癫痫发作,瘫痪,脑损伤和抑郁症)的重要性,从而开启了周五的活动。马斯克说,“所有这些都可以通过植入式神经联系来解决。” “神经元就像是布线,您需要一种电子产品来解决电子问题。”

But it’s worth highlighting that Musk wants Neuralink to do far more than treat specific health conditions. He sees the technology as an opportunity to build a widely available brain-computer interface for consumers, which he thinks could help humans keep pace with increasingly powerful artificial intelligence.

但值得强调的是,马斯克希望Neuralink可以做的远不止于治疗特定的健康状况。 他认为这项技术是为消费者建立广泛可用的脑机接口的机会,他认为这可以帮助人类与日渐强大的人工智能保持同步。

So while modest, Neuralink’s research already foreshadows how this technology could one day change life as we know it. At the same time, it’s a reminder that the potential, eventual merging of humans with computers is destined to introduce a wide range of ethical and social questions that we should probably start thinking about now.

我们知道。 同时,这提醒人们,潜在的人类与计算机的融合最终注定会引入一系列道德和社会问题,我们现在可能应该开始考虑这些问题。

Neuralink wants to link your brain with computers, but that will take a while

Founded in 2016, Neuralink is a neuroscience technology company focused on building systems with super-thin threads that carry electrodes. When implanted into a brain, these threads would form a high-capacity channel for a computer to communicate with the brain, a system supposed to be much more powerful than the existing brain-machine interfaces being researched.

Neuralink成立于2016年,是一家神经科学技术公司,专注于构建带有超细螺纹并带有电极的系统。 当植入大脑时,这些线程将为计算机与大脑进行通信提供一个大容量通道,该系统应该比正在研究的现有脑机接口功能强大得多。

One major barrier to inserting these incredibly tiny wires, which are thinner than a strand of human hair, is actually getting them past the skull and into the brain. That’s why Neuralink is also developing an incredibly small robot that connects the electrode to humans through surgery that’s about as intensive as a Lasik eye procedure. On Friday, Musk outlined how the company hopes to do the procedure without general anesthesia in a single-day hospital stay. That’s the goal at least, and would represent a huge leap forward from previous brain-machine interfaces, which have required more invasive surgeries.

当植入大脑时,这些线程将形成计算机与大脑进行通信的大容量通道,该系统应该比正在研究的现有脑机接口功能强大得多。比人类头发细的金属丝实际上使它们越过头骨进入大脑。因此,Neuralink还开发了一种超乎想象的小型机器人,该机器人通过与Lasik眼部手术同样密集的手术,将电极连接到人体。星期五,马斯克概述了公司希望如何在一天的住院期间不进行全身麻醉的情况下进行手术。至少这是目标,它将代表以前需要更多侵入性手术的脑机接口的巨大飞跃。

“We’ve been connecting forms of computers to brains for 20 or 30 years already,” Nolan Williams, the director of Stanford’s Brain Stimulation Lab, told Recode, referencing deep stimulation used for patients with Parkinson’s as one example of connecting a brain and a computer.

“The brain itself uses certain frequencies and certain kinds of electrical thresholding to communicate with itself,” Williams explained. “Your brain is a series of circuits that kind of intercommunicate and communicate between themselves.”

斯坦福大学大脑刺激实验室主任诺兰·威廉姆斯(Nolan Williams)对Recode表示:“我们已经将计算机的形式连接到大脑已有20或30年,”帕金森氏症患者使用的深层刺激就是连接大脑和大脑的一个例子。 威廉姆斯解释说:“大脑本身使用某些频率和某种电阈值与其自身进行通信。” “您的大脑是一系列相互交流和相互交流的电路。”

A screenshot of the demo shows how a prototype can track the neural spikes of a pig that’s had the device implanted. Screenshot from YouTube

该演示的屏幕截图显示了原型如何跟踪植入了该设备的猪的神经尖峰。 YouTube的屏幕截图

Essentially, a brain-machine interface can use the electricity the brain already uses to function along with a series of electrodes to connect the brain with a machine. Neuralink cites previous examples in which humans have used electrodes to control cursors and robotic limbs with their minds as the basis for its system. But what’s novel about Neuralink’s plan is making the process of connecting a device with the brain minimal, while also massively increasing the number of electrodes engaged. The company wants to make brain-machine interfaces not only easier to install but also more powerful.

从本质上讲,脑机接口可以利用大脑已经使用的电以及一系列电极将大脑与机器连接起来。 Neuralink引用了先前的例子,其中人类使用电极来控制其思想来控制光标和机器人肢体。 但是有关Neuralink计划的新颖之处在于,它使设备与大脑的连接过程最小化,同时还大大增加了所用电极的数量。 该公司希望使脑机接口不仅易于安装,而且功能更强大。

The Neuralink surgical robot, revealed on Friday, is supposed to manipulate and insert the tiny threads into the brain. Woke Studios

周五透露的Neuralink手术机器人应该能够操纵并将细线插入大脑。 唤醒工作室

As the focus of Friday’s event, Musk showed what the second generation of that robot will look like: a large white structure with five degrees of freedom.

“The robot is a super complicated, highly-precise machine which is able to both capture your brain and then with almost a sewing machine-like, micro-precise needle and thread, place the neural threads in the exact right location based on the surgeon decisions around what the safe locations are for the threads to be inserted,” Afshin Mehin, a designer and founder of the firm Woke, which worked on the robot’s outer device that holds the needle, told Recode.

作为周五活动的重点,马斯克展示了第二代机器人的外观:具有五个自由度的大型白色结构。“该机器人是一台超级复杂的高精度机器,能够同时捕获您的大脑 然后使用几乎像缝纫机一样的微细针和线,根据外科医生的决定将神经线放置在正确的正确位置,围绕插入线的安全位置是正确的,”设计师Afshin Mehin 沃克(Woke)公司的创始人对机器人进行了研究,该公司负责固定针的机器人外部设备。

The machine operates at a very small scale, and Neuralink hopes to expand its capabilities. For instance, the current robot has a 150 micrometer gripper, and an even tinier needle — less than 40 micrometers — which can “grasp the implant’s threads then precisely insert each into the cortex while avoiding visible vasculature,” according to Neuralink robotics director Ian O’Hara. He added in an emailed statement that, while the robot currently handles only the insertion of the threads, Neuralink is working to expand the robot’s role in surgery to increase the number of patients it can help and make the procedure shorter.

该机器的运行规模很小,Neuralink希望扩大其功能。 例如,Neuralink机器人总监Ian O表示,例如,当前的机器人具有150微米的夹持器,甚至还有一个较小的针头(小于40微米),可以“抓取植入物的线,然后将它们精确地插入皮质,同时避免可见的脉管系统”。 哈拉。 他在一封电子邮件声明中补充说,虽然该机器人目前仅处理螺纹的插入,但Neuralink正在努力扩大该机器人在外科手术中的作用,以增加它可以帮助的患者数量并缩短手术时间。

Musk said that, in the past year, Neuralink simplified its plans for a wearable device that connects to the threads implanted in the user’s brain. While the first generation of this device would have been installed behind a person’s ear, the newest version is a small, coin-size device that would sit under the top of their skull.

马斯克说,在过去的一年中,Neuralink简化了其可穿戴设备的计划,该设备连接到植入用户大脑的螺纹。 虽然第一代设备将被安装在人耳后,但最新版本却是一个小型的硬币大小的设备,它将安装在他们头骨的下方。

“It’s kind of like a Fitbit in your skull with tiny wires,” explained Musk, who compared the device to a smart watch.

The research is still in early stages and, as it advances, will likely require focusing on how the technology can help people with specific, severe health conditions first, according to Stanford neurosurgery professor Maheen Adamson. While the medical applications of such technology could be wide-ranging, moving it from its current, nascent state will require the close oversight of the Food and Drug Administration, which would not comment specifically on Neuralink.

将设备与智能手表进行比较的马斯克解释说:“这就像是一条用细小的金属丝缠绕在头骨上的Fitbit。”该研究仍处于早期阶段,随着它的发展,可能需要关注该技术如何提供帮助。 斯坦福大学神经外科教授Maheen Adamson说,首先是患有特定,严重健康状况的人。 虽然此类技术的医疗应用可能范围很广,但将其从目前的新生状态中转移出来将需要食品和药物管理局的密切监督,该局不会对Neuralink进行特别评论。

Again, Neuralink’s ultimate plans will go beyond treating specific conditions. The company has said it hopes to allow people to “preserve and enhance” their brains and to “create a well-aligned future.” While that might not sound like a particularly pressing need to the average person, the project fits into Musk’s long-standing concerns about artificial intelligence. Musk has previously said the technology could be more dangerous than nuclear weapons, and warned that AI could become too powerful, too quickly, preventing humans from keeping it in check.

同样,Neuralink的最终计划将不仅仅局限于治疗特定的疾病。 该公司表示,它希望让人们“保留并增强”他们的大脑,并“创造一个协调一致的未来”。 尽管这听起来对普通人来说不是特别紧迫的需求,但该项目符合马斯克长期以来对人工智能的关注。 马斯克此前曾表示,该技术可能比核武器更为危险,并警告说AI可能变得过于强大,过快,从而阻止了人们对其进行检查。

The ultimate goal for Neuralink, Musk explained at a 2019 launch event, is a “full brain-machine interface” that will achieve a “symbiosis with artificial intelligence.” But again, that is still far off.

马斯克在2019年的发布会上解释说,Neuralink的最终目标是“全脑机接口”,它将实现“人工智能的共生”。 但是,那仍然很遥远。

Brain-machine interfaces are nothing new, but they raise ethical concerns

Neuralink and Musk are not the only ones interested in brain-machine interfaces. Facebook, for instance, is hard at work on its own brain-machine interface research with the University of California San Francisco. The company has its eye on creating a “hands-free” way of communicating with computers and has shared some very preliminary results. Last year, Facebook purchased CTRL-Labs, a startup that developed technology that measures neuron activity through a wearable worn on the arm, in order to control digital activity.

并非只有Neuralink和Musk对脑机接口感兴趣。 例如,Facebook正在努力与加州大学旧金山分校合作开展自己的脑机接口研究。 该公司致力于创建一种与计算机通信的“免提”方式,并分享了一些非常初步的结果。 去年,Facebook收购了CTRL-Labs,这是一家开创性公司,该公司开发了通过手臂上的可穿戴设备来测量神经元活动以控制数字活动的技术。

Then there’s ongoing medical research, which is more common than you might think.

“This is something that is done today,” Steven Chase, of Carnegie Mellon’s Neuroscience Institute, told Recode. “There are clinical trials ongoing right now where quadriplegic patients have electrodes implanted in their brains, and they use those electrodes and the neural activity recorded on those electrodes to control external devices, such as cursors on computer screens or robotic arms.”

然后,正在进行的医学研究比您想像的要普遍得多。“这是今天要做的事,”卡内基梅隆大学神经科学研究所的史蒂芬·蔡斯告诉Recode。 “目前正在进行的临床试验中,四肢瘫痪患者的大脑中已植入电极,他们使用这些电极以及记录在这些电极上的神经活动来控制外部设备,例如计算机屏幕或机械臂上的光标。”

In fact, some of the first medical research into such technology came in the second half of the 20th century, and to some extent, brain-machine interfaces currently exist with limited capabilities. The 1980s saw the invention of both deep brain stimulation and what’s called transcranial magnetic stimulation, which, according to the Mayo Clinic, uses “magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain,” and can be used to treat patients with depression.

In the early 2000s came BrainGate, an experimental device that uses an array of electrodes to essentially translate the desire to move limbs from the brain to a device, which is still being researched. The FDA in 2013 approved a system called the RNS Simulator that fires small electrical signals into the brain to stop seizures in some patients with epilepsy.

实际上,对这种技术的一些最早的医学研究是在20世纪下半叶出现的,在某种程度上,当前存在的人机界面功能有限。 在1980年代,深部脑刺激和所谓的经颅磁刺激都得到了发明,据梅奥诊所(Mayo Clinic)称,它利用“磁场刺激大脑中的神经细胞”,可用于治疗抑郁症患者。

Already, there are some rudimentary commercial devices that do things one could loosely compare to what a brain-machine interface does. There are headbands that claim to use EEGs to measure your brain activity and then use that data to do anything from enhancing meditation to piloting a drone. These applications are far from the technology Neuralink aims to provide, but they may hint at what our future could look like: Two years ago, DARPA used an experimental brain-computer interface, a surgical microchip, that allowed a paralyzed person to navigate simulated aircraft.

已经有一些基本的商用设备可以做的事情可以与脑机接口做的比较。 有些头带声称使用EEG来测量您的大脑活动,然后使用该数据来执行从增强冥想到驾驶无人机的任何事情。 这些应用与Neuralink旨在提供的技术相距甚远,但它们可能暗示我们的未来会是什么样:两年前,DARPA使用了实验性的脑机接口,外科手术微芯片,使瘫痪的人能够驾驶模拟飞机 。

“The idea of sort of sending complex thoughts wirelessly around the world is far, far, far away beyond our lifetime,” said Tim Marler, a senior research engineer at RAND. “This is definitely not science fiction. It will be mature and practical and commercial eventually, but there’s a lot of work to be done still.”

兰德(RAND)的高级研究工程师蒂姆·马勒(Tim Marler)表示:“在世界范围内以无线方式发送复杂思想的想法远远超出了我们的一生。” “这绝对不是科幻小说。 最终将是成熟,实用和商业化的,但仍有许多工作要做。”

There is a huge technical divide between what’s currently possible in today’s research laboratories and the concept Musk envisions, which requires devices that can handle a significant amount of information going in and out of the brain. One broader hope for brain-machine-interface technology is that it could ultimately help people with paralysis to complete daily tasks on their own. As Chase, from Carnegie Mellon, explained, “The biggest thing these patients want is independence; this technology has the potential to offer them that.”

在当今的研究实验室中,目前可能存在的技术与Musk设想的概念之间存在着巨大的技术鸿沟,这要求设备能够处理大量进出大脑的信息。 脑机接口技术的一大希望是,它最终可以帮助瘫痪者自行完成日常任务。 正如卡内基·梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon)的大通(Chase)所说:“这些患者想要的最大的东西就是独立性。 这项技术有潜力为他们提供。”

“As we go deeper into this project, we’re asking ourselves: what is it going to be like to have a thought-based interface? Are you gonna have to think in a different way to send and receive ideas?” remarked Mehin, the designer. “Are you gonna have to train your brain to think a certain way? What’s it gonna be like to receive information?”

当我们深入研究这个项目时,我们在问自己:拥有一个基于思想的界面会是什么样? 您是否需要以其他方式思考以发送和接收想法?” 设计师Mehin说。 “您是否需要训练大脑思考某种方式? 接收信息将是什么样?”

But in addition to the technological challenges, the development of brain-machine interfaces also ventures into uncharted ethical and legal territory. On Thursday, the government-funded think tank RAND issued a report on the need for policies around the use of brain-machine interfaces within the military context, where the technology could introduce new concerns like widespread hacking. Of course, with devices that could essentially strip data out of your own mind — including about peoples’ psychological and emotional states — the privacy implications of brain-machine interfaces are also enormous.

但是,除了技术挑战之外,脑机接口的开发还涉足未知的道德和法律领域。 周四,政府资助的智囊团兰德(RAND)发布了一份关于在军事环境下使用脑机接口的政策需求的报告,该技术可能会引发新的担忧,例如广泛的黑客攻击。 当然,使用实质上可以将数据剥离出来的设备(包括有关人们的心理和情绪状态的设备),人机界面的隐私意义也很大。

“If brain-reading devices have the ability to read the content of thoughts, in the years to come governments will be interested in using this tech for interrogations and investigations,” neuroscience-focused researcher Marcello Ienca told Vox last year.

如果大脑阅读设备具有阅读思想内容的能力,那么在未来几年中,政府将对使用该技术进行讯问和调查产生兴趣,”专注于神经科学的研究人员马塞洛·艾恩卡(Marcello Ienca)去年告诉Vox。

The list of challenges goes on. Chase raises another concerning scenario: a world in which this technology is only available to the wealthy, creating an extreme technological divide. And then there are the unanticipated health risks of, you know, surgically inserting computer hardware into human brains.

挑战清单还在继续。 蔡斯提出了另一个令人担忧的情况:一个世界,只有穷人才能使用这项技术,从而造成了极端的技术鸿沟。 然后,就有手术将计算机硬件插入人脑的意外健康风险。

While there’s no reason to worry too much about that right now, Neuralink’s next big announcement is a sign that the idea of connecting human brains to computers on a more regular basis is quickly becoming a reality.

Update Tuesday, September 1, 6:15 ET: This piece has been updated with additional details from Neuralink.

Open Sourced is made possible by Omidyar Network. All Open Sourced content is editorially independent and produced by our journalists.

美国东部时间9月1日,星期二,6:15更新 :此作品已通过Neuralink的其他详细信息进行了更新.Omidyar Network使开源成为可能。 所有开源内容在编辑上都是独立的,由我们的记者制作。

分享家:Addthis中国

Leave a Reply

 

 

 

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>