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历史日志

2019年十二月
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Major Shift: US Rejects ‘Illegal’ Status of Judea and Samaria Communities

United with Israel

Netanyahu Pompeo

Secretary of State Pompeo announced on Monday that the U.S. no longer deems Israeli communities in Judea and Samaria “illegal.”

By World Israel News and AP

On Monday, United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo revoked a 1978 State Department opinion called the Hansell Memorandum, which claimed that civilian settlements in Judea and Samaria are “inconsistent with international law.” The move will likely anger Palestinians and put the U.S. at odds with nations that favor their position.

According to a report by the Jerusalem Post, the State Department’s legal office embarked on a year-long review of the Hansell Memo and met with international law experts and officials from various governments.

The State Department issued the Hansell Memo in 1978 under the Carter administration, but President Ronald Reagan rejected its conclusion in 1981.

The State Department undertook review of the memo fter the Obama administration, in one of its final moves, facilitated the United Nations Security Council’s passage of Resolution 2334 in December 2016, which condemned Jewish communities in Judea and Samaria as “flagrant violation[s]” of international law and with “no legal validity,” the Post reported.

According Pompeo, the Trump administration concluded that the Hansell Memo represents a distraction, and that any legal decision about the issue is appropriate for resolution by Israeli courts, according to a draft of Pompeo’s remarks obtained by The Associated Press.

“Calling the establishment of civilian settlements inconsistent with international law has not advanced the cause of peace,” Pompeo said. “The hard truth is that there will never be a judicial resolution to the conflict, and arguments about who is right and who is wrong as a matter of international law will not bring peace.”

Previous U.S. policies under the Trump administration have included the decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, the movement of the U.S. Embassy to that city and the closure of the Palestinian diplomatic office in Washington.

According to a 2019 report sponsored by Bet El Institutions, an organization with ties to U.S. Ambassador to Israel David Friedman, the population in Jewish communities in Judea and Samaria grew to 449,508 as of Jan. 1, 2019 up 3.3 percent from 435,159 people one year earlier.

Shifting tide?
Even though the Trump Administration’s decision is largely symbolic, it could also give a boost to Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who is fighting for his political survival after he was unable to form a coalition government following recent elections.

In addition, it could spell further trouble for the Trump administration’s Mideast peace plan.

Last week, the European Court of Justice ruled that products made in Jewish communities in Judea and Samaria must bear special labels identifying their origin.

Pompeo announced that the U.S. does not take a position on the legality of specific communities and that the new policy would not extend beyond Judea and Samaria to other territorial disputes.

The shift is a victory for Netanyahu, a longtime booster of the Jewish communities in Judea and Samaria, and had been strongly supported by Ambassador Friedman. Friedman was a major fundraiser for Jewish communities in Judea and Samaria before becoming ambassador.

Israel captured Judea and Samaria, including eastern portions of Jerusalem, in 1967’s Six-Day War, a conflict during which four Arab states attacked Israel. Israel defeated all Arab aggressors in the conflict.

After the war, Israel declared a “united Jerusalem,” regaining access to Judaism’s holiest site, the Temple Mount, including the Western Wall structure.

Israel has yet to annex Judea and Samaria, despite the hundreds of thousands of Jews who call it home.

The Palestinian Authority, which has not held elections in since 2006, claims that territory in Judea and Samaria will be a part of a future independent state.

Many Israelis maintain that the Palestinian Authority’s open support for terrorism, in addition to the handful of Palestinian terror groups with which it competes for power, such as Hamas and Islamic Jihad, make the prospect of an autonomous Palestinian state on Israel’s borders a major security threat.

国务卿庞培周一宣布,美国不再认为犹太和萨马里亚的以色列社区“非法”。

以色列世界新闻社和美联社

周一,美国国务卿迈克·蓬佩奥(Mike Pompeo)撤销了1978年国务院发表的《汉塞尔备忘录》,其中称犹大和萨马里亚的平民定居点“与国际法不符。”此举可能激怒巴勒斯坦人,使美国陷入歧义。与支持其立场的国家。

根据《耶路撒冷邮报》的报道,国务院法律办公室对《汉塞尔备忘录》进行了为期一年的审查,并会见了国际法专家和各国政府官员。

国务院在卡特政府的领导下于1978年发布了《汉塞尔备忘录》,但里根总统在1981年拒绝了该备忘录的结论。
国务院对奥巴马政府的备忘录进行了审查,这是奥巴马政府的最后行动之一,它便利了联合国安理会于2016年12月通过第2334号决议,该决议谴责犹太和撒马利亚的犹太人社区是“公然违反”的行为。 《邮报》报道说,这是国际法规定的,“没有法律效力”。

根据庞培的说法,根据美联社获得的庞培的言论草案,特朗普政府得出结论认为,汉塞尔备忘录(Hansell Memo)令人分心,有关该问题的任何法律决定均适合以色列法院解决。

庞培说:“呼吁建立违反国际法的平民住区并没有推动和平事业。” “硬道理是,永远不会有解决冲突的司法解决方案,而就国际法而言,关于谁是正确和谁是错误的争论不会带来和平。”

特朗普政府以前的美国政策包括承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都的决定,美国使馆迁至该城市以及关闭巴勒斯坦在华盛顿的外交办事处。

根据与美国驻以色列大使戴维·弗里德曼有联系的组织贝特·艾尔机构(Bet El Institutions)赞助的2019年报告,截至2019年1月1日,犹太和撒玛利亚犹太社区的人口增长至449,508,较一年前的435,159人增长了3.3%。较早。

转变潮流?
尽管特朗普政府的决定在很大程度上具有象征意义,但它也可能会给以色列总理本杰明·内塔尼亚胡(Benjamin Netanyahu)带来提振。本杰明·内塔尼亚胡在最近的选举后未能组建联合政府之后,为自己的政治生存而战。

此外,这可能给特朗普政府的中东和平计划带来更多麻烦。

上周,欧洲法院裁定,在犹太和撒马利亚犹太社区生产的产品必须带有特殊标签,以标识其来源。

庞培(Pompeo)宣布,美国对特定社区的合法性不持立场,新政策不会将犹太和萨马里亚地区延伸到其他领土争端。

这一转变是内塔尼亚胡的胜利,内塔尼亚胡是犹太和撒马利亚犹太社区的长期支持者,并得到了弗里德曼大使的大力支持。在担任大使之前,弗里德曼(Friedman)是犹太和撒玛利亚犹太社区的一次主要筹款人。

以色列在1967年的“六日战争”中占领了犹太和撒玛利亚,包括耶路撒冷的东部地区,这场战争在四个阿拉伯国家袭击以色列的冲突中发生。以色列在冲突中击败了所有阿拉伯侵略者。

战后,以色列宣布“联合耶路撒冷”,重新获得犹太教最圣洁的圣殿山,包括西墙结构。

尽管有成千上万的犹太人称其为以色列,但以色列尚未吞并犹太和撒玛利亚。

自2006年以来没有举行过选举的巴勒斯坦权力机构声称,犹太和萨马里亚的领土将成为未来独立国家的一部分。

许多以色列人坚持认为,巴勒斯坦权力机构除了少数与之争夺权力的巴勒斯坦恐怖组织(例如哈马斯和伊斯兰圣战组织)外,对恐怖主义的公开支持也使在以色列边界上建立一个自治的巴勒斯坦国的前景成为主要的安全威胁。

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